Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal
AbstractPlantations of Eucalyptus globulus represent the main source of wood for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal and are affected by the complex of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species (Mycosphaerella leaf disease), which is an important foliage disease worldwide. This disease affect mainly young trees with juvenile-phase foliage, causing premature defoliation, decreased growth and wood production. Species of Mycosphaerella sensu lato reported on eucalypts in Portugal are M. communis, M. heimii, M. lateralis, M. madeirae, M. marksii M. walkeri, T. africana, T. molleriana, T. nubilosa and T. parva. In order to complete the survey, symptomatic leaves were collected from Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Morphological and molecular characterization was used to give an indication of the species occurrence and most frequent species (T. nubilosa) and the composition of the MLD complex that did not change after the latest review.
AFN, 2007. Inventário Florestal Nacional 2005/06, Autoridade Florestal Nacional: http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal/ifn/ifn-resultadospreliminaresjulho-2006.
Barber, PA, Carnegie, AJ, Burgess, TI, Keane, PJ, 2008. Leaf diseases caused by Mycosphaerella species in Eucalyptus globulus plantations and nearby native forest in the green Triangle region of southern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 37, 472-481.
Carnegie AJ. 2007. Forest health condition in New South Wales, Australia, 1996-2005. II. Fungal damage recorded in eucalypt plantations during forest health surveys and their management. Australasian Plant Pathology 36, 225-239.
Carnegie, AJ, Keane, PJ. 1994. Further Mycosphaerella species associated with leaf diseases of Eucalyptus. Mycological Research 98, 413-418.
Carnegie, AJ, Keane, PJ. 1998. Mycosphaerella vespa sp. nov. from diseased Eucalyptus leaves in Australia. Mycological Research 102, 1274-1276.
Crous, PW. 1998. Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs associated with leaf spot diseases of Eucalyptus. Mycologia Memoir. 21, 1-170. St. Paul, Minn., USA, APS Press.
Crous, PW. 2009. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs. Fungal Diversity 38, 1-24.
Crous, PW, Groenewald, JZ, Mansilla, JP, Hunter, GC, Wingfield, MJ, 2004. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. Studies in Mycology 50, 195-214.
Crous, PW, Wingfield, MJ. 1996. Species of Mycosphaerella and their anamorphs associated with leaf blotch disease of Eucalyptus in South Africa. Mycologia 88, 441-458.
Crous, PW, Wingfield, MJ. 1997. Colletogloeopsis, a new coelomycete genus to accommodate anamorphs of two species of Mycosphaerella on Eucalyptus. Canadian Journal of Botany 75, 667-674.
Crous, PW, Wingfield, MJ, Mansilla, JP, Alfenas, AC, Groenewald, JZ. 2006. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II. Studies in Mycology 55, 99-131.
De Blas B, Iturritxa E, Diez J. 2009. New species of Mycosphaerella causing leaf spot on Eucalyptus globulus in Spain. Australian Plant Disease Notes 4, 59.
Dungey, HS, Potts, BM, Carnegie, AJ, Ades, PK. 1997. Mycosphaerella leaf disease: genetic variation in damage to Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus globulus, and their F1 hybrid. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27, 750-759.
Hunter, G, Wingfield, BD, Crous, PW, Wingfield, MJ. 2006. A multigene phylogeny for species of Mycosphaerella occurring on Eucalyptus leaves. Studies in Mycology 55, 147-161.
Lundquist, JE, Purnell, RC. 1987. Effects of Mycosphaerella leaf spot on growth of Eucalyptus nitens. Plant Disease 71, 1025-1029.
Otero, L, Aguín, O, Sainz, MJ, Mansilla, JP. 2007. El género Mycosphaerella en plantaciones de Eucalyptus en Galicia Bol. San. Veg. Plagas 33, 503-516.
Park, RF. 1988. Epidemiology of Mycosphaerella nubilosa and M. cryptica on Eucalyptus spp. in South-Eastern Australia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 91, 261-266.
Park, RF, Keane, PJ. 1982. Leaf diseases of Eucalyptus associated with Mycosphaerella species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 79, 101-115.
Park, RF, Keane, PJ. 1984. Further Mycosphaerella species causing leaf diseases of Eucalyptus. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 83, 93-105.
Park RF, Keane PJ, Wingfield MJ, Crous PW. 2000. Fungal diseases of eucalypt foliage. In ‘Diseases and pathogens of eucalypts’ (Eds P.J. Keane, G.A. Kile, F.D. Podger, B.N. Brown) pp. 153-239. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne).
Pérez, CA, Wingfield, MJ, Altier, NA, Blanchette, RA, 2009. Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae associated with Eucalyptus leaf diseases and stem cankers in Uruguay. Forest Pathology 39, 349-360.
Pérez, G, Hunter, G, Slippers, B, Pérez, C, Wingfield, BD, Wingfield MJ, 2009a. Teratosphaeria (Mycosphaerella) nubilosa, the causal agent of Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD), recently introduced into Uruguay. European Journal of Plant Pathology 125,109-118.
Pérez, G, Slippers, B, Wingfield, BD, Finkenauer, E, Wingfield MJ, 2009b. Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD) outbreak on Eucalyptus globulus in Brazil caused by Teratosphaeria (Mycosphaerella) nubilosa. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 48, 302-306.
Ruperez, A, Munoz, C. 1980. Enfermedades de los eucaliptos en Espana. Boletin del Servicia de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica 6, 193-217.
Sánchez Márquez, S, Bills, GF, Zabalgogeazcoa, I. 2011. Fungal species diversity in juvenile and adult leaves of Eucalyptus globulus from plantations affected by Mycosphaerella leaf disease. Annals of Applied Biology 158, 177-187.
Silva, M, Machado, H, Phillips, AJL. 2009. Mycosphaerella species occurring on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal. European Journal of Plant Pathology 125, 425-433.
Thumen, F von. 1881. Contributiones ad floram mycologicum lusitanicum. Institute Coimbra 28, 1-54.
White, TJ, Bruns, T, Lee, S, Taylor, J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In MA Innis, DH Gelfand, JJ Sninski, TJ White (Eds.) PCR protocols. A guide to methods and applications. San Diego, USA: Academic.
© CSIC. Manuscripts published are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
Forest Systems is an Open Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the license CC-by must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.